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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 196094, 6 pages
Review Article

Role of Inflammation in Endophthalmitis

1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
2Universitary Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain

Received 22 June 2012; Accepted 29 July 2012

Academic Editor: John Christoforidis

Copyright © 2012 J. L. Vallejo-Garcia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammation originating from infection of the vitreous cavity is called endophthalmitis. Attention has been focused on the epidemiologic, microbiologic reports, and treatment options; unfortunately, the role of the host immune reaction in the visual function damage is still not well understood. Endophthalmitis occurs most frequently after cataract surgery. In this paper we review the published literature regarding inflammatory mediators and apoptosis during the course of endophthalmitis. Toll-like receptors, cytokines, high-mobility group box 1 proteins, aB-crystallin and apoptosis have been studied during clinical and experimental cases of endophthalmitis. Further understanding of the host-immune reaction to vitreous infection is essential for the development of new therapies. The use of intravitreal antibiotics and corticosteroids, vitrectomy and systemic antibiotics for the preservation of visual function is still discouraging.