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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 382082, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/382082
Clinical Study

Cytokines in Pericardial Effusion of Patients with Inflammatory Pericardial Disease

1Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gießen & Marburg, Baldinger Straße, 35043 Marburg, Germany
2Department of Heart Surgery, University Hospital Gießen & Marburg, Baldinger Straße, 35043 Marburg, Germany

Received 4 November 2011; Revised 1 February 2012; Accepted 2 February 2012

Academic Editor: François Mach

Copyright © 2012 Konstantinos Karatolios et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The role of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines in patients with inflammatory pericardial effusion still remains uncertain. Methods. We assessed pericardial and serum levels of VEGF, bFGF, IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA in patients with inflammatory pericardial effusion (PE) of autoreactive ( 𝑛 = 2 2 ) and viral ( 𝑛 = 1 1 ) origin, and for control in pericardial fluid (PF) and serum ( 𝑛 = 2 6 ) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results. VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients with autoreactive and viral PE than in patients with CAD in both PE ( 𝑃 = 0 , 0 0 6 for autoreactive and 𝑃 < 0 , 0 0 1 for viral PE) and serum ( 𝑃 < 0 , 0 0 1 for autoreactive and 𝑃 < 0 , 0 0 1 for viral PE). Pericardial bFGF levels were higher compared to serum levels in patients with inflammatory PE and patients with CAD ( 𝑃 ≀ 0 , 0 0 1 for CAD; 𝑃 ≀ 0 , 0 0 1 for autoreactive PE; 𝑃 = 0 , 0 0 5 for viral PE). Pericardial VEGF levels correlated positively with markers of pericardial inflammation, whereas pericardial bFGF levels showed a negative correlation. IL-1β and TNF-α were detectable only in few PE and serum samples. Conclusions. VEGF and bFGF levels in pericardial effusion are elevated in patients with inflammatory PE. It is thus possible that VEGF and bFGF participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pericardial disease.