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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 495934, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/495934
Research Article

Altered AKT1 and MAPK1 Gene Expression on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Correlation with T-Helper-Transcription Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

1Department of Cellular Biology and Immunology, Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López-Neyra, (IPBLN-CSIC), Parque Tecnológico Ciencias de la Salud, Avenida Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
2Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, San Cecilio University Hospital (SCUH), Avenida Dr. Oloriz, no. 16, Granada 18012, Spain
3Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
4Department of Dermatology, SCUH, Avenida Dr. Oloriz, No. 16, Granada 18012, Spain

Received 9 May 2012; Revised 21 August 2012; Accepted 3 September 2012

Academic Editor: Eric F. Morand

Copyright © 2012 Sonia Garcia-Rodriguez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Kinases have been implicated in the immunopathological mechanisms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). v-akt murine-thymoma viral-oncogene-homolog 1 (AKT1) and mitogen-activated-protein-kinase 1 (MAPK1) gene expressions in peripheral mononuclear cells from thirteen SLE patients with inactive or mild disease were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction and analyzed whether there was any correlation with T-helper (Th) transcription factors (TF) gene expression, cytokines, and S100A8/S100A9-(Calprotectin). Age- and gender-matched thirteen healthy controls were examined. AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions were upregulated in SLE patients and correlated with Th17-(Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-C), T-regulatory-(Treg)-(Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFB)-2), and Th2-(interleukin (IL)-5)-related genes. MAPK1 expression correlated with Th1-(IL-12A, T-box TF-(T-bet)), Th2-(GATA binding protein-(GATA)-3), and IL-10 expressions. IL-10 expression was increased and correlated with plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Th0-(IL-2), Th1-(IL-12A, T-bet), GATA3, Treg-(Forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor- (FOXP)-3), and IL-6 expressions. FOXP3 expression, FOXP3/RORC, and FOXP3/GATA3 expression ratios were increased. Plasma IL-1β, IL-12(p70), Interferon-(IFN)-γ, and IL-6 cytokines were augmented. Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-13 correlated with C-reactive protein, respectively. Increased Calprotectin correlated with neutrophils. Conclusion, SLE patients presented a systemic immunoinflammatory activity, augmented AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions, proinflammatory cytokines, and Calprotectin, together with increased expression of Treg-related genes, suggesting a regulatory feedback opposing the inflammatory activity.