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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 584262, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/584262
Review Article

Pathogen- and Host-Directed Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics

1Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria and Tshwane Academic Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charlotte Maxeke Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa

Received 1 February 2012; Accepted 2 March 2012

Academic Editor: Kazuhito Asano

Copyright © 2012 Helen C. Steel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Macrolide antibiotics possess several, beneficial, secondary properties which complement their primary antimicrobial activity. In addition to high levels of tissue penetration, which may counteract seemingly macrolide-resistant bacterial pathogens, these agents also possess anti-inflammatory properties, unrelated to their primary antimicrobial activity. Macrolides target cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as structural cells, and are beneficial in controlling harmful inflammatory responses during acute and chronic bacterial infection. These secondary anti-inflammatory activities of macrolides appear to be particularly effective in attenuating neutrophil-mediated inflammation. This, in turn, may contribute to the usefulness of these agents in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of both microbial and nonmicrobial origin, predominantly of the airways. This paper is focused on the various mechanisms of macrolide-mediated anti-inflammatory activity which target both microbial pathogens and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, with emphasis on their clinical relevance.