Figure 2: Effect of RGAP on iNOS mRNA expression of and activation of transcription factors. (a) The mRNA levels of iNOS and GAPDH were determined by real-time PCR. (b) Total or phosphorylated levels of transcription factors (NF-κB (p65), AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun)), CREB, ATF-2, STAT-1, γ-tubulin, and β-tubulin in nuclear fractions were determined by immunoblotting analysis with antibodies against the total or phosphorylated proteins. # and ## compared to normal.