Mediators of Inflammation / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Alternatively Activated Macrophages in Types 1 and 2 Diabetes

Table 1

Helminths that reduce types 1 and 2 diabetes.

HelminthsDisease/modelInfection/antigenEffectReference

Taenia  crassiceps T1D/MLD-STZInfIncreased Th2 response, AAMφ induction, and decreased TNF-α, therefore less hyperglycemia and no insulitis[7]
Schistosoma  mansoni T1D/NOD/MLD-STZInf/AgIncreased anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-13, as a result, loop of Th2 response; Treg, eosinophil, and AAMφ generation[811]
Heligmosomoides  polygyrus T1D/NODInfTh2 response induction; IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 augmentation; AAMφs in pancreatic and peripheral lymph nodes; inflammation and insulitis reduced; no Treg generation[12]
Litomosoides  sigmodontis T1D/NODInf/AgHigh IL-4 and IL-5; AAMφ and Treg induction; reduced inflammation and glycemia[13]
Trichinella  spiralis T1D/NODInf/AgAmplification of Th2 response; less injury in pancreas and glycemia[14]
Nippostrongylus  brasiliensis T2D/obeseInfTh2 response; recruitment of eosinophils and AAMφs; decreased obesity and insulin resistance[15]