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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 976241, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/976241
Review Article

The Local Inflammatory Responses to Infection of the Peritoneal Cavity in Humans: Their Regulation by Cytokines, Macrophages, and Other Leukocytes

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Centrumlocatie, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Received 11 September 2011; Accepted 16 November 2011

Academic Editor: Markus Wornle

Copyright © 2012 Marien Willem Johan Adriaan Fieren. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Studies on infection-induced inflammatory reactions in humans rely largely on findings in the blood compartment. Peritoneal leukocytes from patients treated with peritoneal dialysis offer a unique opportunity to study in humans the inflammatory responses taking place at the site of infection. Compared with peritoneal macrophages (pM 𝜙 ) from uninfected patients, pM 𝜙 from infected patients display ex vivo an upregulation and downregulation of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, respectively. Pro-IL-1 𝛽 processing and secretion rather than synthesis proves to be increased in pM 𝜙 from infectious peritonitis suggesting up-regulation of caspase-1 in vivo. A crosstalk between pM 𝜙 , γ 𝛿 T cells, and neutrophils has been found to be involved in augmented TNF 𝛼 expression and production during infection. The recent finding in experimental studies that alternatively activated macrophages (M 𝜙 2) increase by proliferation rather than recruitment may have significant implications for the understanding and treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions such as encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS).