Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 976241, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/976241
Review Article

The Local Inflammatory Responses to Infection of the Peritoneal Cavity in Humans: Their Regulation by Cytokines, Macrophages, and Other Leukocytes

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Centrumlocatie, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Received 11 September 2011; Accepted 16 November 2011

Academic Editor: Markus Wornle

Copyright © 2012 Marien Willem Johan Adriaan Fieren. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. K. T. Li, C. C. Szeto, B. Piraino et al., “Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2010 update,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 393–423, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. M. W. J. A. Fieren, “Mechanisms regulating cytokine release from peritoneal macrophages during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Blood Purification, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 179–187, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Topley, R. K. Mackenzie, and J. D. Williams, “Macrophages and mesothelial cells in bacterial peritonitis,” Immunobiology, vol. 195, no. 4-5, pp. 563–573, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. W. Roberts, D. Baird, K. Gallagher et al., “Functional effector memory T cells enrich the peritoneal cavity of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1895–1900, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. R. van Furth and Z. A. Cohn, “The origin and kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 415–435, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Gordon, “The macrophage: past, present and future,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 37, supplement 1, pp. S9–S17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. F. Geissmann, S. Jung, and D. R. Littman, “Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties,” Immunity, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 71–82, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Geissmann, M. G. Manz, S. Jung, M. H. Sieweke, M. Merad, and K. Ley, “Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5966, pp. 656–661, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. A. Varin and S. Gordon, “Alternative activation of macrophages: immune function and cellular biology,” Immunobiology, vol. 214, no. 7, pp. 630–641, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. S. Gordon and F. O. Martinez, “Alternative activation of macrophages: mechanism and functions,” Immunity, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 593–604, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. A. Mantovani, A. Sica, and M. Locati, “New vistas on macrophage differentiation and activation,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. C. Auffray, D. Fogg, M. Garfa et al., “Monitoring of blood vessels and tissues by a population of monocytes with patrolling behavior,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5838, pp. 666–670, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Jenkins, D. Ruckerl, P. C. Cook et al., “Local macrophage proliferation, rather than recruitment from the blood, is a signature of Th2 inflammation,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6035, pp. 1284–1288, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. R. D. Stout, C. Jiang, B. Matta, I. Tietzel, S. K. Watkins, and J. Suttles, “Macrophages sequentially change their functional phenotype in response to changes in microenvironmental influences,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 342–349, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. J. Scotton, F. O. Martinez, M. J. Smelt et al., “Transcriptional profiling reveals complex regulation of the monocyte IL-1β system by IL-13,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 834–845, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Bystrom, I. Evans, J. Newson et al., “Resolution-phase macrophages possess a unique inflammatory phenotype that is controlled by cAMP,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 4117–4127, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. C. S. Goldstein, J. S. Bomalaski, R. B. Zurier, E. G. Neilson, and S. D. Douglas, “Analysis of peritoneal macrophages in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients,” Kidney International, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 733–740, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  18. Y. Maddox, M. Foegh, and B. Zeglis, “A routine source of human peritoneal macrophages,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. Xu, N. Schlagwein, A. Roos, T. K. van den Berg, M. R. Daha, and C. van Kooten, “Human peritoneal macrophages show functional characteristics of M-CSF-driven anti-inflammatory type 2 macrophages,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1594–1599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. M. L. McCully, T. A. Chau, P. Luke, P. G. Blake, and J. Madrenas, “Characterization of human peritoneal dendritic cell precursors and their involvement in peritonitis,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 513–525, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. M. G. Betjes, C. W. Tuk, D. G. Struijk, R. T. Krediet, L. Arisz, and R. H. J. Beelen, “Antigen-presenting capacity of macrophages and dendritic cells in the peritoneal cavity of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 377–384, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. L. Bonta, M. J. P. Adolfs, and M. W. J. A. Fieren, “Cyclic AMP levels and their regulation by prostaglandins in peritoneal macrophages of rats and humans,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 547–555, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Eberl, G. W. Roberts, S. Meuter, J. D. Williams, N. Topley, and B. Moser, “A rapid crosstalk of human γδ T cells and monocytes drives the acute inflammation in bacterial infections,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e1000308, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. M. S. Davey, C.-Y. Lin, G. W. Roberts et al., “Human neutrophil clearance of bacterial pathogens triggers anti-microbial γδ T cell responses in early infection,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e1002040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  25. M. G. Betjes, C. W. Tuk, C. E. Visser et al., “Analysis of the peritoneal cellular immune system during CAPD shortly before a clinical peritonitis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 684–692, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. N. Lai, K. B. Lai, C. W. K. Lam, T. M. Chan, F. K. Li, and J. C. K. Leung, “Changes of cytokine profiles during peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 644–652, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Bellón, V. Martínez, B. Lucendo et al., “Alternative activation of macrophages in human peritoneum: implications for peritoneal fibrosis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 2995–3005, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. M. W. J. A. Fieren, G. J. C. M. van den Bemd, and I. L. Bonta, “Endotoxin-stimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients show an increased capacity to release interleukin-1β in vitro during infectious peritonitis,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 453–457, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. W. J. A. Fieren, G. J. C. M. van den Bemd, I. L. Bonta, and S. Ben-Efraim, “Peritoneal macrophages from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis have an increased capability to release tumour necrosis factor during peritonitis,” Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. W. J. A. Fieren, W. W. Mol, and W. Weimar, “Peritoneal macrophages from patients with peritonitis have a suppressed capacity to release the anti inflammatory cytokine il-10,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 8, Supplement 1, p. S149, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Brauner, B. Hylander, and B. Wretlind, “Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in dialysate and serum from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 430–435, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Brauner, B. Hylander, and B. Wretlind, “Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in dialysate and serum from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 402–408, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. K. Dasgupta, M. Larabie, and P. F. Halloran, “Interferon-gamma levels in peritoneal dialysis effluents: relation to peritonitis,” Kidney International, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 475–481, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H.-H. Wang and C.-Y. Lin, “Interleukin-12 and -18 levels in peritoneal dialysate effluent correlate with the outcome of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: implications for the type I/type II T-cell immune response,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 328–338, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Betjes, C. E. Visser, D. Zemel et al., “Intraperitoneal interleukin-8 and neutrophil influx in the initial phase of a CAPD peritonitis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 385–392, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Moutabarrik, I. Nakanishi, M. Namiki, and Y. Tsubakihara, “Interleukin-1 and its naturally occurring antagonist in peritoneal dialysis patients,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 243–248, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Witowski, A. Jörres, G. A. Coles, J. D. Williams, and N. Topley, “Superinduction of IL-6 synthesis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells is related to the induction and stabilization of IL-6 mRNA,” Kidney International, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1212–1223, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. G. Betjes, C. W. Tuk, D. G. Struijk et al., “Interleukin-8 production by human peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and medium conditioned by macrophages cocultured with Staphylococcus epidermidis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 1202–1210, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. W. J. A. Fieren, W. W. Mol, C. C. Baan, and W. Weimar, “Pro-Il-1β processing and release rather than its production are increased in peritoneal macrophages from patients with infectious pertitonitis,” Mediators Of Inflammation, vol. 8, Supplement 1, p. S14, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Leslie, “Internal affairs,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5955, pp. 929–931, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. J. Chin and M. J. Kostura, “Dissociation of IL-1β synthesis and secretion in human blood monocytes stimulated with bacterial cell wall products,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 151, no. 10, pp. 5574–5585, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. P. Arend, “Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. A new member of the interleukin 1 family,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1445–1451, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J.-M. Cavaillon and D. Annane, “Compartmentalization of the inflammatory response in sepsis and SIRS,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 151–170, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. M. W. J. A. Fieren, G. J. C. M. van den Bemd, S. Ben-Efraim, and I. L. Bonta, “Prostaglandin E2 inhibits the release of tumor necrosis factor-α, rather than interleukin 1β, from human macrophages,” Immunology Letters, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85–90, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. W. Fieren, M. J. Adolfs, and I. L. Bonta, “Alterations in sensitivity and secretion of prostaglandins of human macrophages during CAPD-related peritonitis,” Contributions to Nephrology, vol. 57, pp. 55–62, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. W. J. A. Fieren, G. J. C. M. van den Bemd, and I. L. Bonta, “Release of Interleukin-1 and prostaglandins from peritoneal macrophages,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  47. R. K. Mackenzie, G. A. Coles, and J. D. Williams, “Eicosanoid synthesis in human peritoneal macrophages stimulated with S. epidermidis,” Kidney International, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1316–1324, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. J. Stables, J. Newson, S. S. Ayoub, J. Brown, C. J. Hyams, and D. W. Gilroy, “Priming innate immune responses to infection by cyclooxygenase inhibition kills antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant bacteria,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 16, pp. 2950–2959, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. V. A. Fadok, D. L. Bratton, A. Konowal, P. W. Freed, J. Y. Westcott, and P. M. Henson, “Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-β, PGE2, and PAF,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 890–898, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. J. Randolph, “Immunology: no need to coax monocytes,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6035, pp. 1268–1269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. J. D. Williams, K. J. Craig, N. Topley et al., “Morphologic changes in the peritoneal membrane of patients with renal disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 470–479, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Kawaguchi, A. Saito, H. Kawanishi et al., “Recommendations on the management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in Japan, 2005: diagnosis, predictive markers, treatment, and preventive measures,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 25, supplement 4, pp. S83–S95, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. M. Summers, M. J. Clancy, F. Syed et al., “Single-center experience of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients on peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal failure,” Kidney International, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 2381–2388, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. M. W. J. A. Fieren, M. G. Betjes, M. R. Korte, and W. H. Boer, “Posttransplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: a worrying new trend?” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 619–624, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. N. Braun, P. Fritz, D. Biegger et al., “Difference in the expression of hormone receptors and fibrotic markers in the human peritoneum—implications for therapeutic targets to prevent encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 291–300, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  56. S. J. Davies, L. Mushahar, Z. Yu, and M. Lambie, “Determinants of peritoneal membrane function over time,” Seminars in Nephrology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 172–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed