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Figure 3: Role of LOX-1 in atherosclerosis. OxLDL binding to LOX-1 induces endothelial activation and dysfunction, supports the recruitment of circulating leukocytes, triggers foam cell formation, and sustains migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells, thus contributing to the development of the atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, OxLDL-LOX-1 interaction may also contribute to plaque destabilization by inducing smooth muscle cell apoptosis and the release of matrix degrading enzymes (MMPs).