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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 269787, 12 pages
Review Article

Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy after Eye Injuries: An Overexpression of Growth Factors and Cytokines Leading to a Retinal Keloid

1Ophthalmology Clinic, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Specialties and Public Health, University of Brescia, 1 Piazzale Spedali Civili, Brescia 25123, Italy
2Ophthalmology Clinic, Department of Health Science, University of Molise, Campobasso 86100, Italy
3Ophthalmology Clinic, Istituto Clinico e di Ricerca Humanitas, Rozzano 86100, Milan, Italy

Received 5 August 2013; Accepted 26 August 2013

Academic Editor: John Christoforidis

Copyright © 2013 Francesco Morescalchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Eye injury is a significant disabling worldwide health problem. Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a common complication that develops in up to 40–60% of patients with an open-globe injury. Our knowledge about the pathogenesis of PVR has improved in the last decades. It seems that the introduction of immune cells into the vitreous, like in penetrating ocular trauma, triggers the production of growth factors and cytokines that come in contact with intra-retinal cells, like Müller cells and RPE cells. Growth factors and cytokines drive the cellular responses leading to PVR’s development. Knowledge of the pathobiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in posttraumatic PVR is increasing the possibilities of management, and it is hoped that in the future our treatment strategies will evolve, in particular adopting a multidrug approach, and become even more effective in vision recovery. This paper reviews the current literature and clinical trial data on the pathogenesis of PVR and its correlation with ocular trauma and describes the biochemical/molecular events that will be fundamental for the development of novel treatment strategies. This literature review included PubMed articles published from 1979 through 2013. Only studies written in English were included.