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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 476525, 11 pages
Review Article

Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema

1Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological and Vision Sciences, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedale Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2Eye Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Via de Santis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ferrara, Corso Giovecca 203, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
4Eye Clinic, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Milano, Italy

Received 19 July 2013; Accepted 29 August 2013

Academic Editor: John Christoforidis

Copyright © 2013 Andrea Russo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.