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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 484378, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/484378
Review Article

TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamily Members in HIV infection: New Cellular Targets for Therapy?

1Department of Virology, University of Franche-Comte, CHRU Besançon, UPRES EA4266 Pathogens & Inflammation, SFR FED 4234, 25030 Besançon, France
2Department of Virology, University of Franche-Comte, Hôpital Saint-Jacques, 2 Place Saint-Jacques, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France

Received 31 May 2013; Accepted 24 November 2013

Academic Editor: Sophie Desplat-Jégo

Copyright © 2013 Amit Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptors (TNFR) superfamily members are engaged in diverse cellular phenomena such as cellular proliferation, morphogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and immune regulation. Their role in regulating viral infections has been well documented. Viruses have evolved with numerous strategies to interfere with TNF-mediated signaling indicating the importance of TNF and TNFR superfamily in viral pathogenesis. Recent research reports suggest that TNF and TNFRs play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV. TNFR signaling modulates HIV replication and HIV proteins interfere with TNF/TNFR pathways. Since immune activation and inflammation are the hallmark of HIV infection, the use of TNF inhibitors can have significant impact on HIV disease progression. In this review, we will describe how HIV infection is modulated by signaling mediated through members of TNF and TNFR superfamily and in turn how these latter could be targeted by HIV proteins. Finally, we will discuss the emerging therapeutics options based on modulation of TNF activity that could ultimately lead to the cure of HIV-infected patients.