Figure 5: PA induces an upregulation of PPARα mRNA and protein levels in HaCaT keratinocytes. HaCaT keratinocytes were untreated or treated with PA (75, 100, 125, and 150 μmol/L) for 24 hours in serum-free conditions, and collected immediately and 24 hours after PA depletion. (a) PPAR-α mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The values shown represent mean ± SD of three experiments. Expression of PPARα after treated or untreated with PA immediately (b) and 24 hours (c) were detected by western blotting. The band intensities were evaluated by densitometric analysis (d). The values shown represent the mean ± SD of three experiments. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences of , respectively, between the PA-treated groups and nontreated group.