Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 629529, 6 pages
Research Article

TNF-Alpha Levels in Tears: A Novel Biomarker to Assess the Degree of Diabetic Retinopathy

1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy
2Second University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80100 Naples, Italy
3“Casa di Cura Villa Maria”, Campobasso, Italy
4Department of Medical and Surgical Specialities, Radiological Specialities and Public Health, Eye Clinic, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Received 20 July 2013; Accepted 9 September 2013

Academic Editor: John Christoforidis

Copyright © 2013 C. Costagliola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We assess the level of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tear fluids and other serum parameters associated with diabetes in different degrees of diabetic retinopathy. We have performed a prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Study population consisted of 16 healthy subjects (controls) and 32 type 2 diabetic patients: 16 affected by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 16 with nonproliferative retinopathy (NDPR, background/preproliferative). Body mass index, urinary albumin, blood glucose, HbA1c, and tear levels of TNF-alpha were measured in all subjects. The value of glycaemia, microalbuminurea, and Body mass index in diabetic retinopathy groups were higher than those in control group ( ). Glycemia in NPDR: 6.6 mmol/L (range: 5.8–6.3); in PDR: 6.7 mmol/L (range: 6.1–7.2); in control: 5.7 mmol/L (range: 4.9–6.1); microalbuminurea in NPDR: 10.6 mg/L (range: 5.6–20); in PDR: 25.2 mg/L (range: 17–40); in control: 5.3 mg/L (range: 2.6–10); Body mass index in NPDR: 26 Kg/m2 (range: 20.3–40); in PDR: 28 Kg/m2 (range 20.3–52); in control: 21 Kg/m2 (range 19–26). The TNF-alpha concentrations in tears increase with the severity of pathology and were lower in control group than in diabetic subjects. In the end, the level of TNF-alpha is highly correlated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and with nephropathy. Tear fluid collection may be a useful noninvasive method for the detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.