Table 3: Randomized controlled trials demonstrating a beneficial effect of antioxidant therapy.

SourcePatientsInclusion criteriaAntioxidant agentDoseRouteEndpointsFollowupEvents

CHAOS [106]2002Angiographically demonstrated CADVit E400/800 IUPOCV death + MI; nonfatal MI510 dCV death: 27 vit E, 23 pl; nonfatal MI: 14 vit E, 41 pl
WHS [107]39876Healthy womenVit E600 IU q48 hPOComposite endpoint (CV death, MI, and stroke)10.1 yCV events: Vit E 482, pl 517; CV death: Vit E 106, pl 140; MI: Vit E 196, pl 195
SPACE [108]196Hemodialysis CV disease ptsVit E800 IUPOComposite endpoint (MI, ACS, PAD, and stroke)519 dComposite endpoint: Vit E 15, pl 33;
CV death: vit E 9, pl 15; nonfatal MI: vit E 8, pl 18
Tepel et al. [109]134Hemodialysis CV disease ptsAcetylcysteine1200 mg POComposite endpoint (CV death, MI, PTCA/CABG, PAD, and stroke)14.5 mComposite endpoint: acetylcysteine 18, pl 33
Milman et al. [110]1434Diabetes mellitus Hp 2-2 genotypeVit E400 IUPOComposite endpoint (CV death, MI, and stroke)18 mComposite endpoint: Vit E 16, pl 33

CAD: coronary artery disease; CV: cardiovascular; d: days; DM: diabetes mellitus; HR: hazard ratio; HTN: arterial hypertension; m: months; MI: myocardial infarction; MLD: minimal luminal diameter; na: not available; PAD: peripheral artery disease, pl: placebo; PO: per os; pts: patients; RF: risk factor; vit: vitamin; y: years.