Figure 1: The white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered a major endocrine organ through the capability of secreting adipocytokines. In obese individuals, WAT hosts many immune cell populations interacting with adipocytes. Obesity is a risk factor for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), and it is likely that some adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of these two diseases. In RA, serum adiponectin levels were associated with radiographic damage and decreased as visceral fat area increased; leptin levels were associated with insulin resistance. In OA, leptin levels were associated with increased levels of bone formation biomarkers and erosive disease, and a positive correlation with the body mass index was also observed. These adipocytokines may be involved in the increased cardiovascular risk observed in RA and OA patients. Conversely, the role of resistin and visfatin is still controversial.