Table 1: Overview of main experimental and clinical data on adipocytokines in obesity.

AdipocytokineModel Finding(s)Authors

AdiponectinRhesus monkeys (plasma, adipose tissue) Levels reduced in obese and diabetic animals
Levels decreased in parallel to the progression of insulin resistance
No association between plasma levels and mRNA levels in adipose tissue
Hotta et al. [17]
Knockout miceDelayed clearance of free fatty acid in plasma, high plasma TNF levels and mRNA levels in adipose tissue, severe diet-induced insulin resistance, and low levels of fatty-acid transport protein 1 mRNA in muscleMaeda et al. [18]
Murine (plasma, adipose tissue)
Human (plasma)
Plasma concentrations significantly increased by administration of TZDs in insulin resistant animals; adiponectin mRNA expression normalized/increased by TZDs in adipose tissues
Plasma concentrations significantly increased by administration of TZDs in insulin resistant subjects
Maeda et al. [30]

LeptinMurine (serum, adipose tissue)Levels increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines
Leptin mRNA expression in fat increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines
Sarraf et al. [15]
Murine (serum)Acute decrease after caloric restriction and increase after refeeding Ahima et al. [16]
Human (serum)Levels higher in obese than in normal-weight volunteers and reduced after fasting; positive correlation with serum insulin and plasma glucoseBoden et al. [26]
Human (serum) Levels increased dose-dependently by hyperinsulinemia Boden et al. [28]
Human (serum)Overfeeding and weight gain associated with elevation of leptin levelsKolaczynski et al. [27]

ResistinMurine (serum)Fasted blood glucose higher in resistin-transgenic mice than in their nontransgenic littermates, glucose tolerance impaired in hyperresistinemic miceRangwala et al. [24]
Human (serum, adipose tissue)Levels elevated in obese than lean subjects, positive correlation with BMIDegawa-Yamauchi et al. [45]
Human (serum)Levels not correlated with markers of adiposity, in females higher levels than males, no significant difference in levels after fasting and/or leptin administrationLee et al. [46]
Human (serum, adipose tissue) Levels not different among non-obese and obese diabetic subjects, strong correlation between serum levels and resistin mRNA expression from abdominal adipose tissueHeilbronn et al. [47]
Human (serum)Levels positively associated with percent body fat, not associated with fasting glucose, insulin levels, whole-body insulin sensitivity, basal hepatic glucose output, hepatic glucose output during low-dosage insulin infusion of a hyperinsulinemic clamp, or acute insulin secretory response Vozarova de Courten [48]

VisfatinMurine (mesenteric fat, plasma)
Human (plasma)
Levels increased during development of obesity
Levels elevated in diabetes
Chen et al. [22]
Murine
Human
Recombinant visfatin induced circulating IL-6
Recombinant visfatin induced the production of cytokines and modulated cytokine gene expression in PBMCs and induced chemotaxis in monocytes and B cells
Moschen et al. [42]

TZDs: thiazolidinediones; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; PBMCs: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; BMI: body mass index.