865159.fig.001a
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865159.fig.001b
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865159.fig.001c
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865159.fig.001d
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865159.fig.001e
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Figure 1: Levels of 4-1BB/4-1BBL mRNAs and inflammatory markers in obese skeletal muscle. C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. ((a) and (b)) TNF , IL-6, and MCP-1 mRNAs and proteins were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. (c) Expression of CD68 and -tubulin proteins was determined by western blotting using the indicated antibodies. (d) Expression of 4-1BB and 4-1BBL mRNAs in skeletal muscle was determined by qRT-PCR. Data are means ± SEM for . * , ** compared with RD group. (e) C2C12 myotubes were established for 3 days and then exposed to 500  M palmitic acid (FFA) in serum-free DMEM containing 50  M BSA, 10 ng/mL TNF , or 100 ng/mL LPS in serum-free DMEM for 24 h. Ethanol was used as control of FFA-treated group and the medium with no treatment was used as control of TNF - and LPS-treated groups. Expression of 4-1BB and 4-1BBL mRNAs in myotubes was determined by qRT-PCR. Data are means ± SEM of three independent triplicate experiments. * , ** , and *** compared with controls.