Research Article

Increased Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Table 1

Association analysis of anticardiolipin, β2-glycoprotein 1, and antiphosphoserine with behavioral outcome measures as assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) using Spearman's rank correlations demonstrated that there were significant correlations between anti-phospholipid antibody levels and the severity of impairments in behavior in participants enrolled in this study. For the ABC, a higher score corresponds to more behavioral impairments. For the MSEL and VABS, a lower score corresponds to increased cognitive and adaptive impairments.

Autoantibody profileCardiolipin 2-Glycoprotein 1Phosphoserine
value value value

Aberrant Behavior Checklist
 Subscale I: irritability <0.0010.3680.0010.3430.0020.312
 Subscale II: lethargy 0.0010.334<0.0010.4060.0010.317
 Subscale III: stereotypy 0.0020.309<0.0010.4210.0020.309
 Subscale IV: hyperactivity 0.0100.2570.0010.3430.0400.206
 Subscale V: inappropriate speech 0.4090.0840.0100.2580.8650.017
 Subscale VI: moods <0.0010.345<0.0010.3460.0020.303
Mullen Scales of Early Learning
 Visual reception 0.031−0.2060.002−0.2910.042−0.195
 Fine motor 0.004−0.2720.002−0.2920.002−0.300
 Receptive language 0.009−0.249<0.001−0.3560.003−0.286
 Expressive language 0.004−0.271<0.001−0.3500.007−0.257
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
 Communication 0.011−0.2440.003−0.2840.001−0.324
 Daily living skills 0.047−0.1900.007−0.2550.014−0.234
 Socialization 0.022−0.2190.002−0.2890.002−0.287
 Motor skills 0.088−0.1640.127−0.1470.014−0.236