Table 2: Proportion of study participants with host markers above the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) and differences between saliva and serum.

MarkerMDC (pg/mL)SalivaSerum value
% >MDCMedian (IQR)% >MDCMedian (IQR)

(A) Host markers more abundantly expressed in saliva
IL-1 1.5100.04618.9  (1956.3–10000.0)21.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-1 0.795.024.6 (12.23–54.7)18.00.0 (0.0–0.2)<0.0001
IL-20.497.06.5 (2.3–14.4)32.00.0 (0.0–0.6)<0.0001
IL-50.132.00.0 (0.0–1.1)0.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-71.045.00.0 (0.0–19.0)16.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-80.3100.0145.2 (78.6–237.3)97.013.6 (6.2–27.7)<0.0001
IL-100.339.50.0 (0.0–16.8)2.60.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-12p700.989.09.8 (3.7–16.9)16.00.0 (0.0–0.3)<0.0001
IL-130.392.020.7 (11.4–34.1)0.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-150.645.00.0 (0.0–8.4)5.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IL-170.497.013.0 (8.6–18.9)16.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
IFN- 0.482.04.1 (0.6–10.4)42.00.0 (0.0–5.0)<0.0001
G-CSF3.9100.01348.0  (842.0–2263.2)97.090.7 (45.3–114.4)<0.0001
GM-CSF2.3100.0100.5 (65.3–137.9)8.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
TGF- 1.4100.09.5 (6.7–16.6)92.06.9 (3.2–20.8)0.08
EGF5.3100.05717.0  (3991.9–7964.4)97.098.6 (45.5–185.1)
<0.0001
VEGF10.1100.0618.2 (457.3–802.6)95.0303.5  (145.7–493.2)<0.0001
Fractalkine7.697.0451.8 (137.9–699.9)10.00.0 (0.0-0.0)<0.0001
MMP-91.0100.0164631.4 (105484.3–348292.9)100.02673.0  (1795.9–3951.6)<0.0001

(B) Markers more abundantly expressed in serum
sIL-2R 7.58.00.0 (0.0-0.0)29.00.0 (0.0–10.4)0.01
GRO11.497.0132.5 (74.1–204.0)100.01209.1  (856.0–2099.6)<0.0001
IP-101.3100.0102.6 (67.4–213.3)100.0408.0  (307.4–710.0)<0.0001
MIP-1 3.2100.012.0 (8.4–17.0)100.047.7 (22.2–81.3)
<0.0001
MCP-11.2100.0124.5 (29.5–204.0)100.0473.4  (314.3–644.6)
<0.0001
CRP0.0012*71.088.2 (0.0–232.0)100.027668.5  (9213.7–127253.2)<0.0001
SAA0.21*50.0119.5 (0.0–848.8)97.011408.9  (2519.1–95050.4)<0.0001
SAP0.055*21.00.0 (0.0-0.0)100.046954.9  (37567.1–60894.8)<0.0001
MMP-24813.00.0 (0.0-0.0)100.01148.8  (971.1–1333.0)<0.0001
sCD40L5.2100.0353.8 (166.9–779.2)100.0 *705911 (307862–1039000)<0.0001

(C) No difference in expression levels between serum and saliva
IL-40.60.00.0 (0.0-0.0)0.00.0 (0.0-0.0)
IL-60.445.00.0 (0.0–37.3)32.00.0 (0.0–11.5)0.12
IL-91.115.80.0 (0.0-0.0)5.30.0 (0.0-0.0)0.14
TNF- 0.287.010.6 (6.9–20.6)95.011.1  (6.5–13.0)0.23

Median levels of biomarkers detected in saliva and serum samples from all study participants ( ) and the proportion of participants in whom each marker was >MDC are shown. MDC values were obtained from the package insert of the kit used. *Marker levels are in pg/mL except for CRP, SAA, and SAP (ng/mL). IQR: inter-quartile range.