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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 192594, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/192594
Research Article

Immune Activation, Immunosenescence, and Osteoprotegerin as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Subclinical HIV-Associated Atherosclerosis

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, “ Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy

Received 26 June 2014; Revised 13 September 2014; Accepted 14 September 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Fulvio D’Acquisto

Copyright © 2014 Alessandra D’Abramo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

HIV-infected patients have a significantly greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Several markers including osteoprotegerin have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between T-cell phenotype, osteoprotegerin, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in 94 HIV+ patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with Framingham score <10%. As for the control group, 24 HIV-negative subjects were enrolled. c-IMT was assessed by ultrasound. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+ HLADR+) and senescence (CD57+ CD28−) were measured by flow cytometry. IL-6 and OPG levels were measured by ELISA kit. c-IMT was higher in HIV+ than in controls. Among HIV+ patients, 44.7% had pathological c-IMT (≥0.9 mm). CD8+ T-cell activation and senescence and OPG plasma levels were higher in HIV+ patients than in controls. Subjects with pathological c-IMT exhibited higher CD8+ immune activation and immunosenescence and OPG levels than subjects with normal c-IMT. Multivariate analysis showed that age, CD8+ CD38+ HLADR+, and CD8+ CD28− CD57+ were independently associated with pathological c-IMT. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV patients. Immune activation and immunosenescence of CD8+ T cell together with OPG plasma levels might be associated with the development and progression of early atherosclerosis, even in the case of viral suppression.