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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 259131, 27 pages
Review Article

Novel Insights into miRNA in Lung and Heart Inflammatory Diseases

1Laboratory of Immunogenomics and Immunoproteomics, Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, 77515 Olomouc, Czech Republic
2Department of Internal Medicine I-Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, 77520 Olomouc, Czech Republic

Received 15 November 2013; Revised 3 March 2014; Accepted 21 April 2014; Published 27 May 2014

Academic Editor: Giovanna Castoldi

Copyright © 2014 Amit Kishore et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding regulatory sequences that govern posttranscriptional inhibition of genes through binding mainly at regulatory regions. The regulatory mechanism of miRNAs are influenced by complex crosstalk among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNA seed region and epigenetic modifications. Circulating miRNAs exhibit potential characteristics as stable biomarker. Functionally, miRNAs are involved in basic regulatory mechanisms of cells including inflammation. Thus, miRNA dysregulation, resulting in aberrant expression of a gene, is suggested to play an important role in disease susceptibility. This review focuses on the role of miRNA as diagnostic marker in pathogenesis of lung inflammatory diseases and in cardiac remodelling events during inflammation. From recent reports, In this context, the information about the models in which miRNAs expression were investigated including types of biological samples, as well as on the methods for miRNA validation and prediction/definition of their gene targets are emphasized in the review. Besides disease pathogenesis, promising role of miRNAs in early disease diagnosis and prognostication is also discussed. However, some miRNAs are also indicated with protective role. Thus, identifications and usage of such potential miRNAs as well as disruption of disease susceptible miRNAs using antagonists, antagomirs, are imperative and may provide a novel therapeutic approach towards combating the disease progression.