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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 405158, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/405158
Research Article

Lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata Modulates the Inflammatory Responses Mediated by Monocytes and Macrophages

1Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
2Medical Beauty Research Institute, AmorePacific R&D Center, Yongin 446-729, Republic of Korea
3Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong 369-873, Republic of Korea

Received 11 January 2014; Revised 15 February 2014; Accepted 17 February 2014; Published 23 March 2014

Academic Editor: Fulvio D’Acquisto

Copyright © 2014 Eunji Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this study, we aimed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) in the inflammatory responses of monocytes (U937 cells) and macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). Lancemaside A significantly suppressed the inflammatory functions of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO), the expression of the NO-producing enzyme inducible NO synthase (iNOS), the upregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD80, and the morphological changes induced by LPS exposure. In addition, lancemaside A diminished the phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 cells and boosted the neutralizing capacity of these cells when treated with the radical generator sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Interestingly, lancemaside A strongly blocked the adhesion activity of RAW264.7 cells to plastic culture plates, inhibited the cell-cell and cell-fibronectin (FN) adhesion of U937 cells that was triggered by treatment with an anti-1-integrin (CD29) antibody and immobilized FN, respectively. By evaluating the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways and the levels of related nuclear transcription factors, lancemaside A was found to block the activation of inhibitor of B kinase (IKK) and p65/nuclear factor- (NF-) B. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of lancemaside A is the result of its strong antioxidative and IKK/NF-B inhibitory activities.