Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 409694, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/409694
Research Article

Lipid Isolated from a Leishmania donovani Strain Reduces Escherichia coli Induced Sepsis in Mice through Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses

1Cancer Biology & Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700032, India
2Department of Chemistry, Fakir Chand College, South 24 Parganas, Diamond Harbour, West Bengal 743331, India
3Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, P.O. Box 17020, Kolkata 700032, India

Received 20 February 2014; Revised 22 April 2014; Accepted 13 May 2014; Published 9 July 2014

Academic Editor: Satoru Yui

Copyright © 2014 Subhadip Das et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Flierl, D. Rittirsch, B. A. Nadeau et al., “Phagocyte-derived catecholamines enhance acute inflammatory injury,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7163, pp. 721–725, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. S. Munford and J. Pugin, “Normal responses to injury prevent systemic inflammation and can be immunosuppressive,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 316–321, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Fujiwara and K. Kobayashi, “Macrophages in inflammation,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. B. Kopp and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB and rel proteins in innate immunity,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 58, pp. 1–27, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. S. Baldwin Jr., “The NF-κB and IκB proteins: new discoveries and insights,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 649–683, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Karin and Y. Ben-Neriah, “Phosphorylation meets ubiquitination: the control of NF-κB activity,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 18, pp. 621–663, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Hau, “Bacteria, toxins, and the peritoneum,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Lorber and R. M. Swenson, “The bacteriology of intra-abdominal infections,” The Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1349–1354, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Samuelsson, L. Hang, B. Wullt, H. Irjala, and C. Svanborg, “Toll-like receptor 4 expression and cytokine responses in the human urinary tract mucosa,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 3179–3186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. A. Moore and E. E. Moore, “Evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of postinjury multiple organ failure,” The Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 257–277, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. B. Goodman, R. M. Strieter, D. P. Martin et al., “Inflammatory cytokines in patients with persistence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 602–611, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. L. Brigham, “Mechanisms of lung injury,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9–24, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. F. Krieglstein and D. N. Granger, “Adhesion molecules and their role in vascular disease,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 44S–54S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Antonelli, M. Bianchi, R. Crinelli, L. Gentilini, and M. Magnani, “Modulation of ICAM-1 expression in ECV304 cells by macrophage-released cytokines,” Blood Cells, Molecules, & Diseases, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 978–991, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. K. Wheller and M. Perretti, “Dexamethasone inhibits cytokine-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 up-regulation on endothelial cell lines,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 331, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Q. Wei, A. Mengesha, D. Good, and J. Anné, “Bacterial targeted tumour therapy-dawn of a new era,” Cancer Letters, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 16–27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Malmgren and C. C. Flanigan, “Localization of the vegetative form of Clostridium tetani in mouse tumors following intravenous spore administration,” Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 473–478, 1955. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. M. Kwan, A. M. Fialho, M. Kundu et al., “Bacterial proteins as potential drugs in the treatment of leukemia,” Leukemia Research, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1392–1399, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. W. Paugh, S. G. Payne, S. E. Barbour, S. Milstien, and S. Spiegel, “The immunosuppressant FTY720 is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase type 2,” FEBS Letters, vol. 554, no. 1-2, pp. 189–193, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Billich, F. Bornancin, P. Dévay, D. Mechtcheriakova, N. Urtz, and T. Baumruker, “Phosphorylation of the immunomodulatory drug FTY720 by sphingosine kinases,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 48, pp. 47408–47415, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Proudfoot, C. A. O’Donnell, and F. Y. Liew, “Glycoinositolphospholipids of Leishmania major inhibit nitric oxide synthesis and reduce leishmanicidal activity in murine macrophages,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 745–750, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. N. Majumdar, A. Banerjee, J. Ratha, M. Mandal, R. N. Sarkar, and K. D. Saha, “Leishmanial lipid suppresses tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide production by adherent synovial fluid mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 696–706, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Ray, “Cultivation of various Leishmania parasites on solid medium,” Journal of Medical Research, vol. 20, pp. 355–357, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  24. E. G. Bligh and W. J. Dyer, “A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification,” Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 911–917, 1959. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. P. Heinzel, “The role of IFN-γ in the pathology of experimental endotoxemia,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 145, no. 9, pp. 2920–2924, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 55–63, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Towbin, T. Staehelin, and J. Gordon, “Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 4350–4354, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. T. Litchfield Jr. and F. Wilcoxon, “A simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 96, pp. 99–113, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. E. Sewnath, D. P. Olszyna, R. Birjmohun, F. J. W. ten Kate, D. J. Gouma, and T. van der Poll, “IL-10-deficient mice demonstrate multiple organ failure and increased mortality during Escherichia coli peritonitis despite an accelerated bacterial clearance,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 166, no. 10, pp. 6323–6331, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Weijer, S. H. Schoenmakers, S. Florcpin et al., “Inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa pathway does not influence the inflammatory or antibacterial response to abdominal sepsis induced by Escherichia coli in mice,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 189, no. 12, pp. 2308–2317, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Takao, K. Mikawa, K. Nishina, and H. Obara, “Attenuation of acute lung injury with propofol in endotoxemia,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 810–816, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Xu, J. Qu, L. Cao et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell-based angiopoietin-1 gene therapy for acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 214, no. 4, pp. 472–481, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Yin, X.-B. Jin, Q. Gong et al., “Fructose-1,6-diphosphate attenuates acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 8, no. 13-14, pp. 1842–1847, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. Shen, J. Gan, S. Xu, G. Jiang, and H. Wu, “Penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury involvement of NF-κB pathway,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 296–302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. R. Jacobson, J. W. Barnard, D. N. Grigoryev, S.-F. Ma, R. M. Tuder, and J. G. N. Garcia, “Simvastatin attenuates vascular leak and inflammation in murine inflammatory lung injury,” American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 288, no. 6, pp. L1026–L1032, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J.-M. Cavaillon, M. Adib-Conquy, C. Fitting, C. Adrie, and D. Payen, “Cytokine cascade in sepsis,” Scandinavian The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 535–544, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. S. Hotchkiss and I. E. Karl, “The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 2, pp. 138–150, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. G. Cannon, R. G. Tompkins, J. A. Gelfand et al., “Circulating interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor in septic shock and experimental endotoxin fever,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 79–84, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. P. Glauser, “The inflammatory cytokines. New developments in the pathophysiology and treatment of septic shock,” Drugs, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 9–17, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. N. Mänuel and B. Echtenacher, “TNF in the inflammatory response,” Chemical Immunology, vol. 74, pp. 141–161, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Descoteaux, S. J. Turco, D. L. Sacks, and G. Matlashewski, “Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan selectively inhibits signal transduction in macrophages,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 2747–2753, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Matthay and G. A. Zimmerman, “Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: four decades of inquiry into pathogenesis and rational management,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 319–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. Skotnicka and E. Hassmann, “Proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in the middle ear effusions,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. D. Paladino, J. R. Hotchkiss, and H. Rabb, “Acute kidney injury and lung dysfunction: a paradigm for remote organ effects of kidney disease?” Microvascular Research, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. S. Gonçalves, M. Ghaem-Maghami, G. Monteleone et al., “Critical role for tumor necrosis factor alpha in controlling the number of lumenal pathogenic bacteria and immunopathology in infectious colitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 6651–6659, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Shibata, H. Yamada, H. Hara, K. Kishihara, and Y. Yoshikai, “Resident Vδ1+ γδ T cells control early infiltration of neutrophils after Escherichia coli infection via IL-17 production,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 7, pp. 4466–4472, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. L. N. Hubbard, M. N. Ballinger, P. E. Thomas et al., “A role for IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M in prostaglandin E 2-induced immunosuppression post-bone marrow transplantation,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 184, no. 11, pp. 6299–6308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. S. O'Mahony, W. C. Liles, W. A. Altemeier et al., “Mechanical ventilation interacts with endotoxemia to induce extrapulmonary organ dysfunction,” Critical Care, vol. 10, no. 5, article R136, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Li, R. Zhang, J. Li et al., “Antimalarial artesunate protects sepsis model mice against heat-killed Escherichia coli challenge by decreasing TLR4, TLR9 mRNA expressions and transcription factor NF-κB activation,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 379–389, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Marienfeld, M. J. May, I. Berberich, E. Serfling, S. Ghosh, and M. Neumann, “RelB forms transcriptionally inactive complexes with RelA/p65,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 22, pp. 19852–19860, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. O. Meyrick, U. S. Ryan, and K. L. Brigham, “Direct effects of E. coli endotoxin on structure and permeability of pulmonary endothelial monolayers and the endothelial layer of intimal explants,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 140–151, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. S. Worthen, C. Haslett, A. J. Rees, R. S. Gumbay, J. E. Henson, and P. M. Henson, “Neutrophil-mediated pulmonary vascular injury. Synergistic effect of trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide and neutrophil stimuli on vascular permeability and neutrophil sequestration in the lung,” The American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. Abraham, “Neutrophils and acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. S195–S199, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. U. Meduri, “Clinical review: a paradigm shift: the bidirectional effect of inflammation on bacterial growth. Clinical implications for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Critical Care, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Volk and W. J. Kox, “Endothelium function in sepsis,” Inflammation Research, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 185–198, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. A. Springer, “Traffic signals on endothelium for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 57, pp. 827–872, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. Collins, M. A. Read, A. S. Neish, M. Z. Whitley, D. Thanos, and T. Maniatis, “Transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules: NF-κB and cytokine-inducible enhancers,” FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 899–909, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus