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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 432685, 6 pages
Review Article

The Role of Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vascular Diseases

1Department of Ophthalmology, “Lozano Blesa” University Clinic Hospital, San Juan Bosco 15, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2Aragon Health Sciences Institute, Zaragoza, Spain
3Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain
4IRB-Lleida, Lleida, Spain
5Department of Ophthalmology, Poznań City Hospital, Poznań, Poland
6University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland

Received 10 May 2014; Revised 5 July 2014; Accepted 9 July 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Yves Denizot

Copyright © 2014 Francisco J. Ascaso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Macular edema (ME) is a nonspecific sign of numerous retinal vascular diseases. This paper is an updated overview about the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of both diabetic macular edema (DME) and ME secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). We focus on the inflammatory mediators implicated, the effect of the different intravitreal therapies, the recruitment of leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules, and the role of retinal Müller glial (RMG) cells.