Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 479395, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/479395
Research Article

TLR4-Mediated Blunting of Inflammatory Responses to Eccentric Exercise in Young Women

1Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, Campus Universitario, 24071 León, Spain
2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden

Received 4 June 2014; Revised 9 August 2014; Accepted 10 August 2014; Published 9 September 2014

Academic Editor: Fulvio D'Acquisto

Copyright © 2014 Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Y. Arikawa, W. Thomas, K. H. Schmitz, and M. S. Kurzer, “Sixteen weeks of exercise reduces C-reactive protein levels in young women,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1002–1009, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. N. Blair, Y. Cheng, and J. S. Holder, “Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits?” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. S379–S399, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Mathur and B. K. Pedersen, “Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2008, Article ID 109502, 6 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. K. Pedersen and L. Hoffman-Goetz, “Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 1055–1081, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Peake, K. Nosaka, and K. Suzuki, “Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 11, pp. 64–85, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Fernández-Gonzalo, J. A. de Paz, P. Rodríguez-Miguélez, M. J. Cuevas, and J. González-Gallego, “Effects of eccentric exercise on toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 112, no. 12, pp. 2011–2018, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. García-López, M. J. Cuevas, M. Almar, E. Lima, J. A. De Paz, and J. González-Gallego, “Effects of eccentric exercise on NF-κB activation in blood mononuclear cells,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 653–664, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Jiménez-Jiménez, M. J. Cuevas, M. Almar et al., “Eccentric training impairs NF-kappaB activation and over-expression of inflammation-related genes induced by acute eccentric exercise in the elderly,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 313–321, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. G. Flynn and B. K. McFarlin, “Toll-like receptor 4: link to the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise?” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 176–181, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Gleeson, B. McFarlin, and M. Flynn, “Exercise and toll-like receptors,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 12, pp. 34–53, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Akira, S. Uematsu, and O. Takeuchi, “Pathogen recognition and innate immunity,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 783–801, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Cristi-Montero, P. Sánchez-Collado, C. Veneroso, M. J. Cuevas, and J. González-Gallego, “Effect of an acute exercise bout on Toll-like receptor 4 and inflammatory mechanisms in rat heart,” Revista Medica de Chile, vol. 140, no. 10, pp. 1282–1288, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. D. Phillips, R. M. Patrizi, D. J. Cheek, J. S. Wooten, J. J. Barbee, and J. B. Mitchell, “Resistance training reduces subclinical inflammation in obese, postmenopausal women,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2099–2110, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Zbinden-Foncea, J. M. Raymackers, L. Deldicque, P. Renard, and M. Francaux, “TLR2 and TLR4 activate p38 MAPK and JNK during endurance exercise in skeletal muscle,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1463–1472, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Into, M. Inomata, E. Takayama, and T. Takigawa, “Autophagy in regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1150–1162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. G. Flynn, B. K. McFarlin, M. D. Phillips, L. K. Stewart, and K. L. Timmerman, “Toll-like receptor 4 and CD14 mRNA expression are lower in resistive exercise-trained elderly women,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1833–1842, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. K. McFarlin, M. G. Flynn, W. W. Campbell et al., “Physical activity status, but not age, influences inflammatory biomarkers and toll-like receptor 4,” Journals of Gerontology A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 388–393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Shimizu, N. Suzuki, T. Imai et al., “Monocyte and T-CELL responses to exercise training in elderly subjects,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2565–2572, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Oliveira and M. Gleeson, “The influence of prolonged cycling on monocyte Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in healthy men,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 251–257, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Giraldo, M. D. Hinchado, J. J. Garcia, and E. Ortega, “Influence of gender and oral contraceptives intake on innate and inflammatory response. Role of neuroendocrine factors,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 313, no. 1-2, pp. 147–153, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. von Stebut, M. Metz, G. Milon, J. Knop, and M. Maurer, “Early macrophage influx to sites of cutaneous granuloma formation is dependent on MIP-1α/β released from neutrophils recruited by mast cell-derived TNFα,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 210–215, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Cartier, M. Côté, I. Lemieux et al., “Sex differences in inflammatory markers: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1307–1314, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Northoff, S. Symons, D. Zieker et al., “Gender- and menstrual phase dependent regulation of inflammatory gene expression in response to aerobic exercise,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 14, pp. 86–103, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. W. Booth and M. J. Laye, “The future: genes, physical activity and health,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 199, no. 4, pp. 549–556, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. J. García, E. Bote, M. D. Hinchado, and E. Ortega, “A single session of intense exercise improves the inflammatory response in healthy sedentary women,” Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Fernández-Gonzalo, G. Bresciani, F. de Souza-Teixeira et al., “Effects of a 4-week eccentric training program on the repeated bout effect in young active women,” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 692–699, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. J. Cuevas, M. Almar, J. C. García-Glez et al., “Changes in oxidative stress markers and NF-κB activation induced by sprint exercise,” Free Radical Research, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 431–439, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. I. Miller, S.-H. Choi, P. Wiesner, and Y. S. Bae, “The SYK side of TLR4: signalling mechanisms in response to LPS and minimally oxidized LDL,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 990–999, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. F. Kenny and L. A. J. O'Neill, “Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update,” Cytokine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 342–349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Kawai and S. Akira, “Signaling to NF-κB by Toll-like receptors,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 460–469, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Ma, M. He, and L. Qiang, “Exercise therapy downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB after cerebral ischemia in rats,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 3718–3733, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. Li, M. Liu, S. Lai et al., “Immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in human PBMC through regulation of TRAF6/TLR immunosignal-transduction pathways,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 576–584, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. C. Coll and L. A. J. O'Neill, “New insights into the regulation of signalling by toll-like receptors and nod-like receptors,” Journal of Innate Immunity, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 406–421, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Verstrepen, T. Bekaert, T.-L. Chau, J. Tavernier, A. Chariot, and R. Beyaert, “TLR-4, IL-1R and TNF-R signaling to NF-κB: variations on a common theme,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 19, pp. 2964–2978, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Wretman, A. Lionikas, U. Widegren, J. Lännergren, H. Westerblad, and J. Henriksson, “Effects of concentric and eccentric contractions on phosphorylation of MAPKerk1/2 and MAPKp38 in isolated rat skeletal muscle,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 535, no. 1, pp. 155–164, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Veneroso, M. J. Tuñón, J. González-Gallego, and P. S. Collado, “Melatonin reduces cardiac inflammatory injury induced by acute exercise,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 184–191, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Takahasi, N. H. Suzuki, M. Horiuchi et al., “X-ray crystal structure of IRF-3 and its functional implications,” Nature Structural Biology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 922–927, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Mori, M. Yoneyama, T. Ito, K. Takahashi, F. Inagaki, and T. Fujita, “Identification of Ser-386 of interferon regulatory factor 3 as critical target for inducible phosphorylation that determines activation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 11, pp. 9698–9702, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Panne, S. M. McWhirter, T. Maniatis, and S. C. Harrison, “Interferon regulatory factor 3 is regulated by a dual phosphorylation-dependent switch,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 31, pp. 22816–22822, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Sharma, B. R. TenOever, N. Grandvaux, G.-P. Zhou, R. Lin, and J. Hiscott, “Triggering the interferon antiviral response through an IKK-related pathway,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5622, pp. 1148–1151, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Honda, A. Takaoka, and T. Taniguchi, “Type I inteferon gene induction by the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors,” Immunity, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 349–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. V. W. Dolinsky, K. E. Jones, R. S. Sidhu et al., “Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 590, no. 11, pp. 2783–2799, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Honda, H. Yanai, H. Negishi et al., “IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7034, pp. 772–777, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. P. McHugh, D. A. Connolly, R. G. Eston, and G. W. Gleim, “Exercise-induced muscle damage and potential mechanisms for the repeated bout effect,” Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 157–170, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus