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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 482352, 12 pages
Research Article

Dynamics of Acute Local Inflammatory Response after Autologous Transplantation of Muscle-Derived Cells into the Skeletal Muscle

1Department of Immunology, Transplant Medicine and Internal Diseases, Transplantation Institute, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowogrodzka 59, 02-006 Warsaw, Poland
2Department of Dermatology and Immunodermatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Koszykowa 82A, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland
3Department of Immunology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
4Department of Large Animal Diseases with Clinic, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 100, 02-797 Warsaw, Poland

Received 14 February 2014; Revised 10 July 2014; Accepted 24 July 2014; Published 27 August 2014

Academic Editor: Arkadiusz Orzechowski

Copyright © 2014 Anna Burdzinska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The vast majority of myoblasts transplanted into the skeletal muscle die within the first week after injection. Inflammatory response to the intramuscular cell transfer was studied in allogeneic but not in autologous model. The aim of this study was to evaluate immune reaction to autotransplantation of myogenic cells and to assess its dynamics within the first week after injection. Muscle-derived cells or medium alone was injected into the intact skeletal muscles in autologous model. Tissue samples were collected 1, 3, and 7 days after the procedure. Our analysis revealed the peak increase of the gene expression of all evaluated cytokines (Il-1α, Il-1β, Il-6, Tgf-β, and Tnf-α) at day 1. The mRNA level of analyzed cytokines normalized in subsequent time points. The increase of Il-β gene expression was further confirmed at the protein level. Analysis of the tissue sections revealed rapid infiltration of injected cell clusters with neutrophils and macrophages. The inflammatory infiltration was almost completely resolved at day 7. The survived cells were able to participate in the muscle regeneration process. Presented results demonstrate that autotransplanted muscle-derived cells induce classical early immune reaction in the site of injection which may contribute to cellular graft elimination.