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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 520241, 10 pages
Research Article

25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

1Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “A. Monroy” (IBIM), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Palermo, Italy
2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Received 8 May 2014; Revised 5 June 2014; Accepted 5 June 2014; Published 26 June 2014

Academic Editor: Yves Denizot

Copyright © 2014 Anna Bonanno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC), 11 allergic rhinitis (AR) patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR) patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH) Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH) Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH) Vit D. In AAR 25(OH) Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH) Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH) Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.