Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 786947, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/786947
Research Article

The Role of IL-17 Promotes Spinal Cord Neuroinflammation via Activation of the Transcription Factor STAT3 after Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat

1Department of Spine Osteopathia, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China
2College of Public Hygiene of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China
3Graduate School of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China
4Department of Osteopathia, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, No. 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China

Received 19 February 2014; Revised 24 March 2014; Accepted 7 April 2014; Published 30 April 2014

Academic Editor: Anshu Agrawal

Copyright © 2014 Shaohui Zong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Filli and M. E. Schwab, “The rocky road to translation in spinal cord repair,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 491–501, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. Y. K. Zhang, J. T. Liu, Z. W. Peng et al., “Different TLR4 expression and microglia/macrophage activation induced by hemorrhage in the rat spinal cord after compressive injury,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 10, no. 1, article 112, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. L. Jian and L. Guozhong, “Research progress of Th17 cells in nervous system diseases,” Immunology Journal, vol. 29, no. 005, pp. 442–446, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Korn, E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. K. Kuchroo, “IL-17 and Th17 cells,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 27, pp. 485–517, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. K. Kuchroo, “TH-17 cells in the circle of immunity and autoimmunity,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 345–350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Ertelt, T. M. Johanns, J. H. Rowe, and S. S. Way, “Interleukin (IL)-21-independent pathogen-specific CD8+ T-cell expansion, and IL-21-dependent suppression of CD4+ T-cell IL-17 production,” Immunology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Qu, M. Xu, I. Mizoguchi et al., “Pivotal roles of T-helper 17-related cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in inflammatory diseases,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2013, Article ID 968549, 13 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. D. P. Ankeny and P. G. Popovich, “Mechanisms and implications of adaptive immune responses after traumatic spinal cord injury,” Neuroscience, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 1112–1121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Zong, G. Zeng, B. Wei, C. Xiong, and Y. Zhao, “Beneficial effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein on spinal cord injury recovery in the rat,” Inflammation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 520–526, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Yanagawa, A. Marcillo, R. Garcia-Rojas, K. E. Loor, and W. D. Dietrich, “Influence of posttraumatic hypoxia on behavioral recovery and histopathological outcome following moderate spinal cord injury in rats,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 635–644, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Yacoub, M. C. Hajec, R. Stanger et al., “Neuroprotective effects of perflurocarbon (oxycyte) after contusive spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 256–267, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  12. H. S. Sharma, “New perspectives for the treatment options in spinal cord injury,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 2773–2800, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. L. Langrish, Y. Chen, W. M. Blumenschein et al., “IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 233–240, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Kotake, N. Udagawa, N. Takahashi et al., “IL-17 in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 1345–1352, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Nakae, A. Nambu, K. Sudo, and Y. Iwakura, “Suppression of immune induction of collagen-induced arthritis in IL-17-deficient mice,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 171, no. 11, pp. 6173–6177, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. C. Genovese, F. van den Bosch, S. A. Roberson et al., “LY2439821, a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 929–939, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. Xu, B. R. Wang, X. Wang et al., “ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediate iNOS-induced spinal neuron degeneration after acute traumatic spinal cord injury,” Life Sciences, vol. 79, no. 20, pp. 1895–1905, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Yang, P. C. Blumbergs, N. R. Jones, J. Manavis, G. T. Sarvestani, and M. N. Ghabriel, “Early expression and cellular localization of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human traumatic spinal cord injury,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 966–971, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Laurence, C. M. Tato, T. S. Davidson et al., “Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation,” Immunity, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 371–381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Kimura and T. Kishimoto, “IL-6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1830–1835, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Bettelli, Y. Carrier, W. Gao et al., “Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells,” Nature, vol. 441, no. 7090, pp. 235–238, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Gao and P. A. Ward, “STAT3 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3: potential targets in lung inflammatory responses,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 869–880, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. J. Scott, C. J. Godshall, and W. G. Cheadle, “Jaks, STATs, cytokines, and sepsis,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1153–1159, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Yao, Y. Kanno, M. Kerenyi et al., “Nonredundant roles for Stat5a/b in directly regulating Foxp,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 4368–4375, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Korn, M. Mitsdoerffer, A. L. Croxford et al., “IL-6 controls Th17 immunity in vivo by inhibiting the conversion of conventional T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 47, pp. 18460–18465, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Liu, Y.-M. Yao, Y. Yu, N. Dong, H.-N. Yin, and Z.-Y. Sheng, “Role of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in regulation of expression and inflammation-promoting activity of high mobility group box protein 1 in rat peritoneal macrophages,” Shock, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. J. Hilton, “Negative regulators of cytokine signal transduction,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1568–1577, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Zhao, M. Zhang, W. Li et al., “Suppression of JAK2/STAT3 signaling reduces end-to-end arterial anastomosis induced cell proliferation in common carotid arteries of rats,” PloS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e58730, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Xie, M. Li, X. Wang et al., “In vivo delivery of adenoviral vector containing interleukin-17 receptor a reduces cardiac remodeling and improves myocardial function in viral myocarditis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy,” PloS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e72158, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  30. Y. Liu, S. Yu, Z. Li et al., “TGF-β enhanced IL-21-induced differentiation of human IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells via smad3,” PloS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e64612, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. Qian, T. Jiang, W. Zhang et al., “Increased IL-23 and IL-17 expression by peripheral blood cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis,” Cytokine, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 172–180, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. M. El-Behi, B. Ciric, H. Dai et al., “The encephalitogenicity of TH 17 cells is dependent on IL-1- and IL-23-induced production of the cytokine GM-CSF,” Nature Immunology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 568–575, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus