Chitosan Oligosaccharides Attenuate Ocular Inflammation in Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Anterior Uveitis
Effects of COS on spleen-derived lymphocyte chemotaxis, the secretion of inflammatory mediators, and the activation of NF-κB. (a) Spleen-derived lymphocytes of each group were harvested and exposed to 10 μg/mL MAA for 3 days. These cells were placed in the upper chamber of a QCM apparatus, and the aqueous humor of the same group was placed in the lower chamber of the QCM apparatus. After 24 hrs of incubation, the migrated cells were stained with a green fluorescent dye and subjected to ELISA and the relative fluorescence unit was calculated. The expression of (b) TNF-α, (c) MCP-1, (d) RANTES, and (e) fractalkine in the culture media of spleen-derived lymphocytes from each group was measured using ELISA. (f) The NF-κB/DNA binding activity of spleen-derived lymphocytes from each group was measured using EMSA. “Fold change” was defined as optic density of the PBS-treated, low-dose, or high-dose COS group divided by optic density of the normal group (∗ compared with the PBS-treated group; # compared with the normal group; & compared with the low-dose group by Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc Dunn test; for each group).