Research Article

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

Figure 2

Acute TNF induces loss of ileal villus area and epithelial cell mass during development. Ileal segments of the small intestine were harvested from control and TNF-treated mice at indicated ages. (a) Villus areas were determined by tracing perimeters in Nikon Elements software; (b) epithelial cell numbers were microscopically quantified. Data are shown as the TNF-induced change versus controls (which are set to 100%). Significant differences from controls at each equivalent age are denoted by an asterisk (; ). (c) Representative tissue samples are shown.