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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 858045, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/858045
Research Article

Regulating Inflammation Using Acid-Responsive Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds for Skin Scarless Healing

1Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, 200233, China
2Orthopedic Institute, Soochow University, 708 Renmin Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, China
3School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China
4Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, China

Received 15 December 2013; Revised 18 February 2014; Accepted 18 February 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Valacchi

Copyright © 2014 Ziming Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing.