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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 921054, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/921054
Research Article

CD206+ Cell Number Differentiates Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from Seasonal Influenza A Virus in Fatal Cases

1Department of Immunology, School of Medicine and University Hospital, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Gonzalitos 235 Norte, Mitras Centro, 64460 Monterrey, NL, Mexico
2Servicio de Anatomia Patologica y Citopatologia, School of Medicine and University Hospital, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Monterrey, NL, Mexico
3Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), HGZ No. 6, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL, Mexico

Received 17 July 2014; Accepted 9 November 2014; Published 25 November 2014

Academic Editor: Elaine Hatanaka

Copyright © 2014 Heidi G. Rodriguez-Ramirez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus affected many persons around the world. There is an urgent need for finding biomarkers to distinguish between influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus. We investigated these possible biomarkers in the lung of fatal cases of confirmed influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Cytokines (inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) and cellular markers (macrophages and lymphocytes subpopulation markers) were analyzed in lung tissue from both influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus. High levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α positive cells were identical in lung tissue from the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal cases when compared with healthy lung tissue (). Increased IL-4+ cells, and CD4+ and CD14+ cells were also found in high levels in both influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus (). Low levels of CD206+ cells (marker of alternatively activated macrophages marker in lung) were found in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 when compared with seasonal influenza virus (), and the ratio of CD206/CD14+ cells was 2.5-fold higher in seasonal and noninfluenza group compared with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (). In conclusion, CD206+ cells differentiate between influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus in lung tissue of fatal cases.