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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 938712, 11 pages
Research Article

Leukocyte Production of Inflammatory Mediators Is Inhibited by the Antioxidants Phloretin, Silymarin, Hesperetin, and Resveratrol

Department of Periodontics (MC 859), College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, 458 DENT, Chicago, IL 60612-7212, USA

Received 27 August 2013; Revised 9 January 2014; Accepted 11 January 2014; Published 24 February 2014

Academic Editor: Vera L. Petricevich

Copyright © 2014 Jezrom B. Fordham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Antioxidants possess significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. One such disorder is periodontitis characterised by an antimicrobial immune response, inflammation, and irreversible changes to the supporting structures of the teeth. Recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a crucial component of innate immunity to Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, as well as the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, we investigated the antioxidants Phloretin, Silymarin, Hesperetin, and Resveratrol to ascertain whether they altered the production of inflammatory mediators by innately-activated leukocytes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide purified from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and the production of cytokines, chemokines, and differentiation factors was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cytometric bead array, and RT-PCR. Significant inhibition of these factors was achieved upon treatment with Phloretin, Silymarin, Hesperetin, and Resveratrol. These data further characterise the potent anti-inflammatory properties of antioxidants. Their ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and differentiation factors by a heterogeneous population of leukocytes has clear implications for their therapeutic potential in vivo.