Leukocyte Production of Inflammatory Mediators Is Inhibited by the Antioxidants Phloretin, Silymarin, Hesperetin, and Resveratrol
Stimulation of whole blood and PBMCs with Aa Y4 LPS. Human whole blood (a) and PBMCs (b) were cultured for 18 hrs in media alone, or treated with Phloretin, Silymarin, Hesperetin, or Resveratrol at a concentration of M for 2 hrs prior to Aa Y4 LPS (1 μg/mL) challenge. Negative control = LPS stimulation with 0.01% DMSO. Positive control = LPS stimulation with prednisone (10 μM) preincubation. After 18 hrs, cell viability was assayed, and the concentration of TNF-α in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. Mean and SD of 3 biological replicates are displayed. Student’s two-tailed -test was applied, indicating statistical significance versus LPS.
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