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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 129034, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/129034
Review Article

Cytokines as Mediators of Pain-Related Process in Breast Cancer

1Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, State University of West Paraná, UNIOESTE, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Rua Maringá 1200, 85605-010 Francisco Beltrão, PR, Brazil
2Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, State University of Londrina, UEL, PR, Brazil

Received 23 May 2015; Revised 16 October 2015; Accepted 25 October 2015

Academic Editor: Xue-Jun Song

Copyright © 2015 Carolina Panis and Wander Rogério Pavanelli. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pain is a clinical sign of inflammation found in a wide variety of chronic pathologies, including cancer. The occurrence of pain in patients carrying breast tumors is reported and is associated with aspects concerning disease spreading, treatment, and surgical intervention. The persistence of pain in patients submitted to breast surgery is estimated in a range from 21% to 55% and may affect patients before and after surgery. Beyond the physical compression exerted by the metastatic mass expansion and tissue injury found in breast cancer, inflammatory components that are significantly produced by the host-tumor interaction can significantly contribute to the generation of pain. In this context, cytokines have been studied aiming to establish a cause-effect relationship in cancer pain-related syndromes, especially the proinflammatory ones. Few reports have investigated the relationship between pain and cytokines in women carrying advanced breast cancer. In this scenario, the present review analyzes the main cytokines produced in breast cancer and discusses the evidences from literature regarding its role in specific clinical features related with this pathology.