Research Article

Lung Epithelial TRPA1 Transduces the Extracellular ROS into Transcriptional Regulation of Lung Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke: The Role of Influxed Ca2+

Figure 5

The CSE-induced activation of the ERK/JNK/NF-κB signaling in HBECs is TRPA1-mediated, Ca2+-dependent, and ROS-sensitive. (a–c) Cells were exposed to medium alone or to 3% CSE for 6, 6, and 12 h, respectively, and pretreated with EGTA (an extracellular Ca2+ chelator; 500 μM), HC-030031 (HC, a TRPA1 antagonist; 9 μM), or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger; 1 mM). Protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Activation of ERK and JNK was indicated by increased phosphorylation of these kinases, whereas activation of NF-κB was indicated by the increased presence of p65 subunit in the nucleus. Data in each group are mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. versus the control; # versus CSE alone.