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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 194864, 21 pages
Review Article

Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

1Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Research Center of Systemic Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Diseases, University of Siena, Viale Bracci 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
3Institute of Pediatrics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 22 October 2014; Accepted 25 December 2014

Academic Editor: Pham My-Chan Dang

Copyright © 2015 Giuseppe Lopalco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.