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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 196297, 13 pages
Research Article

Identification of Anti-Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acid IgG Antibodies in Serum of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

1Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11085 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School Medicine, 11085 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
3Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Sanitarium Drive, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
4Section of Endocrinology, JL Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 11201 Benton Street, Loma Linda, CA 92357, USA
5Division of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School Medicine, 11245 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
6Whittier College, 13406 Philadelphia Street, Whittier, CA 90601, USA
7Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School Medicine, 11021 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA

Received 14 July 2015; Revised 26 September 2015; Accepted 1 October 2015

Academic Editor: Wilco de Jager

Copyright © 2015 Dequina A. Nicholas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


High levels of serum long chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs) have been associated with inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Dietary SFAs can promote inflammation, the secretion of IgG antibodies, and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. This study characterizes anti-LCSFA IgG antibodies from patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum samples from several cohorts with type 2 diabetes were analyzed for the presence of anti-LCSFA IgG, the cytokine IL-1β, and nonesterified fatty acids. Anti-LCSFA IgG was isolated from patient samples and used for in vitro characterization of avidity and specificity. A cohort participating in En Balance, a diabetes health education program that improved diabetes management, tested positive for anti-LCSFA IgG. Following the 3-month program, the cohort showed a significant reduction in anti-LCSFA IgG levels. Anti-LCSFA antibodies isolated from these patients demonstrated high avidity, were specific for long chain SFAs, and correlated with serum fatty acids in patients with managed type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, anti-LCSFA IgG neutralized PA-induced IL-1β secretion by dendritic cells. Our data shows that nonesterified SFAs are recognized by IgG antibodies present in human blood. The identification of anti-LCSFA IgG antibodies in human sera establishes a basis for further exploration of lipid induced immune responses in diabetic patients.