Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 274607, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/274607
Research Article

Reduced Serum Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Indicates Severe Systemic Inflammation in Critically Ill Patients

Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Received 3 September 2014; Revised 27 December 2014; Accepted 3 January 2015

Academic Editor: Stefanie B. Flohé

Copyright © 2015 Aleksandar R. Zivkovic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Annane, P. Aegerter, M. C. Jars-Guincestre, and B. Guidet, “Current epidemiology of septic shock: the CUB-Réa network,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. C. Angus, W. T. Linde-Zwirble, J. Lidicker, G. Clermont, J. Carcillo, and M. R. Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1303–1310, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Alberti, C. Brun-Buisson, S. V. Goodman et al., “Influence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on outcome of critically III infected patients,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Pierrakos and J.-L. Vincent, “Sepsis biomarkers: a review,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 1, article R15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. V. Borovikova, S. Ivanova, M. Zhang et al., “Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 458–462, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Wang, M. Yu, M. Ochani et al., “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6921, pp. 384–388, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. J. Tracey, “The inflammatory reflex,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 853–859, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Hofer, C. Eisenbach, I. K. Lukic et al., “Pharmacologic cholinesterase inhibition improves survival in experimental sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 404–408, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Peter, K. Schmidt, S. Hofer et al., “Effects of physostigmine on microcirculatory alterations during experimental endotoxemia,” Shock, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 405–411, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. S. Kaplay, “Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of developing human brain,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 65–73, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. Burnett, “An assessment of the value of serum cholinesterase as a liver function test and in the diagnosis of jaundice,” Gut, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 294–302, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Meng, X. Yin, X. Ma, X. D. Guo, B. Jin, and H. Li, “Assessment of the value of serum cholinesterase as a liver function test for cirrhotic patients,” Biomedical Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 265–268, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. S. al-Kassab and E. Vijayakumar, “Profile of serum cholinesterase in systemic sepsis syndrome (septic shock) in intensive care unit patients,” European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 11–14, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Iwasaki, M. Yoneda, A. Nakajima, and Y. Terauchi, “Serum butyrylcholinesterase is strongly associated with adiposity, the serum lipid profile and insulin resistance,” Internal Medicine, vol. 46, no. 19, pp. 1633–1639, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. A. Rao, G. R. Sridhar, and U. N. Das, “Elevated butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase may predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1272–1276, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. U. N. Das, “Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as possible markers of low-grade systemic inflammation,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 214–221, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Brenner, K. Schmidt, M. Delang et al., “Viscoelastic and aggregometric point-of-care testing in patients with septic shock—cross-links between inflammation and haemostasis,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1277–1290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes et al., “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including the Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 580–637, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. N. R. MacIntyre, S. K. Epstein, S. Carson, D. Scheinhorn, K. Christopher, and S. Muldoon, “Management of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: report of a NAMDRC consensus conference,” Chest, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 3937–3954, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. H. Hartl, H. Wolf, C. P. Schneider, H. Küchenhoff, and K.-W. Jauch, “Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study,” Critical Care, vol. 11, no. 3, article R55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. Russell, “Management of sepsis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 16, pp. 1699–1713, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. A. Weigand, H. J. Bardenheuer, and B. W. Böttiger, “Clinical management of patients with sepsis,” Anaesthesist, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 3–22, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Worek, U. Mast, D. Kiderlen, C. Diepold, and P. Eyer, “Improved determination of acetylcholinesterase activity in human whole blood,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 288, no. 1-2, pp. 73–90, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. V. Nobre, S. Harbarth, J.-D. Graf, P. Rohner, and J. Pugin, “Use of procalcitonin to shorten antibiotic treatment duration in septic patients: a randomized trial,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 177, no. 5, pp. 498–505, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Fleck, G. Raines, F. Hawker et al., “Increased vascular permeability: a major cause of hypoalbuminaemia in disease and injury,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8432, pp. 781–784, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. McCluskey, A. N. Thomas, B. J. M. Bowles, and R. Kishen, “The prognostic value of serial measurements of serum albumin concentration in patients admitted to an intensive care unit,” Anaesthesia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 724–727, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. A. Knaus, E. A. Draper, D. P. Wagner, and J. E. Zimmerman, “APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 818–829, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. R. le Gall, S. Lemeshow, and F. Saulnier, “A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 270, no. 24, pp. 2957–2963, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, J. Takala et al., “The SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 707–710, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, P. Giannopoulou, P. Grecka, D. Voros, K. Mandragos, and H. Giamarellou, “Should procalcitonin be introduced in the diagnostic criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis?” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 152–157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. C. Lee, M. Y. Hong, N. Y. Lee, P. L. Chen, C. M. Chang, and W. C. Ko, “Pitfalls in using serum C-reactive protein to predict bacteremia in febrile adults in the ED,” The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 562–569, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Distelmaier, M.-P. Winter, K. Rützler et al., “Serum butyrylcholinesterase predicts survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiovascular surgery,” Critical Care, vol. 18, no. 2, article 24, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Lampón, E. F. Hermida-Cadahia, A. Riveiro, and J. C. Tutor, “Association between butyrylcholinesterase activity and low-grade systemic inflammation,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 356–363, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Jokanović and M. Maksimović, “Abnormal cholinesterase activity: understanding and interpretation,” European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. S. Jope, W. G. Walter-Ryan, R. D. Alarcon, and K. M. Lally, “Cholinergic processes in blood samples from patients with major psychiatric disorders,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1258–1266, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. B. Assayag, S. Shenhar-Tsarfaty, K. Ofek et al., “Serum cholinesterase activities distinguish between stroke patients and controls and predict 12-month mortality,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 7-8, pp. 278–286, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Shenhar-Tsarfaty, T. Bruck, E. R. Bennett et al., “Butyrylcholinesterase interactions with amylin may protect pancreatic cells in metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1747–1756, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Arbel, S. Shenhar-Tsarfaty, N. Waiskopf et al., “Decline in serum cholinesterase activities predicts 2-year major adverse cardiac events,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Diamant, E. Podoly, A. Friedler, H. Ligumsky, O. Livnah, and H. Soreq, “Butyrylcholinesterase attenuates amyloid fibril formation in vitro,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 8628–8633, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Podoly, T. Bruck, S. Diamant et al., “Human recombinant butyrylcholinesterase purified from the milk of transgenic goats interacts with beta-amyloid fibrils and suppresses their formation in vitro,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 232–236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. F. Rossi, D. M. Khan, R. Hannan, J. Bolivar, M. Zaidenweber, and R. Burke, “Goal-directed medical therapy and point-of-care testing improve outcomes after congenital heart surgery,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 98–104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus