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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 320532, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/320532
Review Article

Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

1Department of Health Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of “Magna Graecia”, Viale Europa, Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, School of Medicine, University of “Magna Graecia”, Viale Europa, Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy

Received 12 June 2015; Revised 1 September 2015; Accepted 7 September 2015

Academic Editor: Hirayuki Enomoto

Copyright © 2015 Maria Carla Liberto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.