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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 361638, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/361638
Research Article

Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats

1Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 289 Jianguo Road, Xindian District, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, No. 701, Sec. 3, Zhongyang Road, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
3Department of Pathology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 289 Jianguo Road, Xindian District, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Nursing, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wushing Street, Taipei 11042, Taiwan

Received 3 June 2015; Revised 28 October 2015; Accepted 4 November 2015

Academic Editor: Kazuhiro Ito

Copyright © 2015 Wei-Chi Chou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group), sham-operation (Sham), or sham plus caffeine ( in each group). To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group ( and , resp.). Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all ). These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs.