Mediators of Inflammation / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

Table 1

Background information of cluster analyses including characterization of phenotypes of adult-onset asthma.

StudyPatient Duration of asthma (mean/median years)Patients with early-onset asthma includedSeverity levels includedMajor comorbidities (other than rhinitis/atopy) included as input or outcome variables Smokers included Other exclusion criteriaStudy setting  
CS = cross-sectional  
L = longitudinal (time followed)
Variables related to biomarkers included in cluster analysis

Haldar et al. 2008 [16](a) 184  
(b) 187  
(c) 68
NRYes(a) Mild-to-moderate, (b-c) refractory (b) Scores for anxiety (input), depression and hyperventilation syndrome Ex-smokers with 10 pack-years(c) Therapy nonadherence(a-b) CS  
(c) L (1 year)
Sputum eosinophil count

Moore et al. 2010 [15](d) 72622YesAllAspirin sensitivity/polyps, pneumonia/bronchitis, sinus disease, GERD, and hypertension (all input, included in composite variables) Ex-smokers with 5 pack-yearsAge below 12 yearsCSNone

Siroux et al. 2011 [19](e) 1895  
(f) 641
NRYesAllEczema (input)Yes(e) Age below 20 years  
(f) Children
CS (population-based)Total IgE

Amelink et al. 2013 [3](g) 20010 NoAllNSAID sensitivity (input), history of nasal polyposis, and reflux symptoms/medication Yes if 12% FEV1 reversibility after salbutamol inhalation and normal diffusion capacity. Respiratory symptoms or chronic lung diseases during childhood, other pulmonary diseases, or nonrelated major comorbidities, pregnancy.CSSputum eosinophils, total IgE

Kim et al. 2013 [14](h) 724  
(i) 1843
NR YesAllNoneYes(h) Subjects with destroyed lungs, bronchiectasis or lung resection, age below 18 years  
(i) age below 18 years
(h) L (1 year)  
(i) CS

Newby et al. 2014 [17](j) 349NR YesSevere refractoryScores for anxiety and depression, reflux history, nasal polyps, and eczemaYesNR L (median 3 years)Blood eosinophil count, total IgE

Schatz et al. 2014 [18](k) 3612NR Yes Difficult-to-treat asthma (all) Aspirin sensitivity, atopic dermatitis (input)Yes, smoking history 30 pack-years(k) Age below 12 yearsL (1 year)Total IgE

Kaneko et al. 2013 [20](l) 880NRYesAllNoneYesNRCSTotal IgE

NR = not reported, GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease, NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second. (a), (b), and (c) Patients recruited from several different studies and sources (a = primary care, b = secondary care, c = data from a prospective clinical study), (d) SARP = the Severe Asthma Research Network, (e) ECRHSII = European Community Respiratory Health Survey, (f) EGEA2 = Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, (g) patients recruited from hospitals in Amsterdam, (h) COREA = Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea, (i) SCH = Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre, (j) patients from British Thoracic Society Severe Refractory Asthma Registry, (k) TENOR = The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens, and (l) patients recruited from University of Tsukuba Hospital, Hokkaido University Hospital, or their affiliated hospitals, Japan. Defined as age at onset 18 years.

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