Table 1: The expression of cytokines in different samples of autistic patients.

CytokinesSampleExpressionReferences

InterleukinsIL-1SerumSingh et al. (1991) [12]
IL-1RSerumCroonenberghs et al. (2002) [13]
IL-1PBMCJyonouchi et al. (2001) [14]
IL-2Serum;
PBMC
Singh et al. (1991) [12]
IL-2RPBMCSingh et al. (1991) [12]
IL-2Plasma Ashwood et al. (2010) [25]
IL-2BrainLi et al. (2009) [26]
IL-6Plasma Singh (1996) [39]
IL-6BrainVargas et al. (2005) [8]
Wei et al. (2011) [40]

ChemokinesMCP-1/CCL2Brain; CSF
plasma
Vargas et al. (2005) [8];
Ashwood et al. (2010) [25]
MCP-1/CCL2AFAbdallah et al. (2012) [46]
OPNSerumAl-ayadhi and Mostafa (2011) [55]

Tumor necrosis factor TNF-αPlasmaSingh (1996) [39]
PBMCJyonouchi et al. ( 2001) [14]
Ashwood et al. (2011) [42, 57]
CSFChez et al. (2007) [4]
BrainLi et al. (2009) [26]

Interferon IFN-γPlasmaSingh (1996) [39]
Croonenberghs et al. (2002) [13]
PlasmaSweeten et al. (2004) [65]
BrainLi et al. (2009) [26]

Growth factorsTGF-β1PlasmaOkada et al. (2007) [72]
Ashwood et al. (2008) [67]
TGF-β1BrainVargas et al. (2005) [8]
EGFSerumSuzuki et al. (2007) [78]
EGFSerumIşeri et al. (2011) [79]
Tobiasova et al. (2011) [80]
BDNFSerumNelson et al. (2001) [83]

Growth factorsBDNFSerumMiyazaki et al. (2004) [84]
SerumKatoh-Semba et al. (2007) [85]
BrainSheikh et al. (2010) [86]
GM-CSFBrainLi et al. (2009) [26]
PBMCAshwood et al. (2008) [67]
PlasmaManzardo et al. (2012) [5]

PBMCs: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; AF: amniotic fluid; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; TGF: transforming growth factor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.