Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 601604, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/601604
Research Article

Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Downregulates the Expression of Protumor Factors Cyclooxygenase-2 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in a GM-CSF Receptor-Independent Manner in Cervical Cancer Cells

1Department of Dermatovenerology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China
2Institute of Dermatovenerology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China
3Jingmen First People’s Hospital, Hubei 448000, China
4Institute of Immunology, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
5Department of Dermatology, 105th Hospital of PLA, Hefei 230001, China
6Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China

Received 25 February 2015; Revised 25 June 2015; Accepted 5 July 2015

Academic Editor: Alex Kleinjan

Copyright © 2015 Nanyan Jiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is associated with the pathogenic processes of various tumor types. COX-2 and iNOS expression in the immunomodulatory dendritic cells is mediated by the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is also expressed by cervical cancer cells; however, whether and how GM-CSF regulates COX-2 and iNOS expression in clinical cervical cancer cells remain unknown. In this study, we found that the COX-2 and iNOS expression was upregulated in the cervical cancer tissues and positively correlated with cancer metastasis and stage. About one-half of the cervical cancer tissues showed strong/moderate GM-CSF expression, while the normal cervical tissues showed >80% positive rate; no GM-CSFR protein was detectable on the cervical cancer cells. The GM-CSF expression was negatively correlated with the COX-2 and iNOS expression in the cervical cancer tissues and the functional negative regulatory effect of GM-CSF on COX-2/iNOS expression was demonstrated in various cervical cancer cell lines. Therefore, in cervical cancer cells, GM-CSF might contribute an antitumor response by inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 expression in a GM-CSFR independent manner.