Mediators of Inflammation / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Cancer as a Proinflammatory Environment: Metastasis and Cachexia

Table 1

Summary of the effect of some factors involved in the development of cancer cachexia and metastasis.

FactorActionReference

Ghrelin↑ in cachexia cancer patients[11]
↓ Myostatin[12]

Myostatin↑ in Cancer/Cachexia[13, 14]
↑ Proteolysis[1517]

LeptinContribute to metastasis[18]
Regulate neoangiogenesis[19, 20]

HIF↑ Apoptosis[21]
↑ Angiogenesis[21]
↑ Proliferation tumour cells[22]
↑ IL-6, leptin, TNF-α, and ANGPTL-4[23, 24]
Contribute to metastasis[2326]
↑ Glycolysis[27]
↑ VEGF, endothelins, IL-8, and EMAP II[28]
↑ M2 ↓ T cells response[29]

IL-6Contribute to metastasis[3032]
↑ Proteolysis and atrophy muscle mass[33, 34]
↓ Food intake and ↑ energy expenditure[3537]

TNF-α↑ Proteolysis[38, 39]
Contribute to angiogenesis[40]
Stimulate apoptosis[41]
↓ Food intake and ↑ energy expenditure[42]

ANGPTL-4   Contribute to angiogenesis[43]
Contribute to metastasis[4347]
↑ Lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation[48]
↓ Food intake and body weight gain[49]