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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 793624, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/793624
Research Article

Peripheral NMDA Receptors Mediate Antidromic Nerve Stimulation-Induced Tactile Hypersensitivity in the Rat

1Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea
2Department of Physiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
3Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
4Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
5Graduate Program in Cognitive Science Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea

Received 19 August 2015; Accepted 19 November 2015

Academic Editor: Seungkyu Lee

Copyright © 2015 Jun Ho Jang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the role of peripheral NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in antidromic nerve stimulation-induced tactile hypersensitivity outside the skin area innervated by stimulated nerve. Tetanic electrical stimulation (ES) of the decentralized L5 spinal nerve, which induced enlargement of plasma extravasation, resulted in tactile hypersensitivity in the L4 plantar dermatome of the hind-paw. When intraplantar (i.pl.) injection was administered into the L4 dermatome before ES, NMDAR and group-I metabotropic Glu receptor (mGluR) antagonists and group-II mGluR agonist but not AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist prevented ES-induced hypersensitivity. I.pl. injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors also prevented ES-induced hypersensitivity. When the same injections were administered after establishment of ES-induced hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity was partially reduced by NMDAR antagonist only. In naïve animals, i.pl. Glu injection into the L4 dermatome induced tactile hypersensitivity, which was blocked by NMDAR antagonist and PKA and PKC inhibitors. These results suggest that the peripheral release of Glu, induced by antidromic nerve stimulation, leads to the expansion of tactile hypersensitive skin probably via nociceptor sensitization spread due to the diffusion of Glu into the skin near the release site. In addition, intracellular PKA- and PKC-dependent mechanisms mediated mainly by NMDAR activation are involved in Glu-induced nociceptor sensitization and subsequent hypersensitivity.