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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 983782, 10 pages
Research Article

Inflammation Biomarkers of Advanced Disease in Nongingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients

1Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
2Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
3Instituto de Ciências Tecnológicas e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
4Departamento de Odontologia Clínica, Universidade de Uberaba, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
5Departamento de Biologia Oral, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil
6Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
7CEFORES, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
8School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Department of Clinical Analyzes, Toxicology and Food Sciences, USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 19 January 2015; Accepted 30 March 2015

Academic Editor: Teresa Zelante

Copyright © 2015 Thiago Alvares da Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that affects supporting structures of the teeth. Although the gingival response is largely described, little is known about the immune changes in the alveolar bone and neighboring tissues that could indicate periodontal disease (PD) activity. Then, in this study we identified the ongoing inflammatory changes and novel biomarkers for periodontitis in the tissues directly affected by the destructive disease in PD patients. Samples were collected by osteotomy in 17 control subjects during extraction of third molars and 18 patients with advanced PD, in which alveoloplasty was necessary after extraction of teeth with previous extensive periodontal damage. Patients presented mononuclear cells infiltration in the connective tissue next to the bone and higher fibrosis area, along with increased accumulation of IL-17+ and TRAP+ cells. The levels of TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA were also elevated compared to controls and a positive and significant correlation was observed between TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA expression, considering all samples evaluated. In conclusion, nongingival tissues neighboring large periodontal pockets present inflammatory markers that could predict ongoing bone resorption and disease spreading. Therefore, we suggested that the detailed evaluation of these regions could be of great importance to the assessment of disease progression.