Table 2: The effects of EGF on EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions.

Cell linesInducerTJ associated proteinsInvolved pathwaysReference

Caco-2Hydrogen peroxideIncreased in tubulin polymerizationPKC-β1[50]
Caco-2Hydrogen peroxideIncreased in tubulin polymerization and decreased in monomeric tubulinPKC-[51]
Caco-2Hydrogen peroxideIncreased F-actin-to-G-actin ratioPKC-β1 ↑; NF-κB ↓2[52]
Caco-2Acetaldehyde Occludin ↑; ZO-1 ↑1Inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation[53]
Caco-2Hydrogen peroxideF-actin ↑; G-actin ↓PLC-γ ↑; NF-κB ↓[40]
Caco-2Hydrogen peroxide Occludin ↑; ZO-1 ↑ERK-MAPK[23]
Caco-2Acetaldehyde Occludin ↑; ZO-1 ↑Not mentioned[54]
Caco-2Acetaldehyde Occludin ↑; ZO-1 ↑PLC-γ/PKC[55]
Caco-2Acetaldehyde Occludin ↑; ZO-1 ↑ERK1/2-MAPK[24]
NRC-1 cells3Hydrogen peroxideZO-1 ↑; claudin-3 ↑PLC-γ/PKC[56]
MCAS4NoneClaudin-3 ↓MEK/ERK or
PI3K/Akt
[57]
HUOA5Claudin-4 ↓
MDCK6NoneClaudin-4 ↑MEK/ERK[58]
MDCKNoneClaudin-2 ↓; claudin-4 ↑Src and STAT3[25]

Symbols ↑ and ↓ indicate increases and decreases in the protein or mRNA expression, respectively. 2Symbols ↑ and ↓ stand for activation and inhibition, respectively. 3Cholangiocytes. 4Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. 5Serous cystadenocarcinoma. 6Darby canine kidney cells.