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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 2180417, 8 pages
Review Article

Holding the Inflammatory System in Check: TLRs and Their Targeted Therapy in Asthma

1Department of Pathogen Biology, Basic Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Respiratory Disease, Jilin Provincial People’s Hospital, Changchun 130021, China
3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia

Received 24 February 2016; Accepted 13 April 2016

Academic Editor: Eda Holl

Copyright © 2016 Zhiyong Dong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammation is a complex biological response to detrimental stimuli and can be a double-edged sword. Inflammation plays a protective role in removing pathogenic factors, but dysregulated inflammation is associated with several major fatal diseases such as asthma, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Asthma is a complex heterogenous disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. TLRs are the primary proteins associated with the innate and adaptive immune responses to these fatal factors and play an important role in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which initiates the downstream immune response. Due to the complex TLRs cascade and nowadays unsuccessful control in asthma, new studies are focused on TLRs and other potential targets in TLR cascade to minimize airway inflammation.